The database that comes with Office Professional. Access can handle tens of thousands of rows with ease and has great connectivity support for traditional database servers.
Excel is part of Microsoft's Office suite and interfaces with any ODBC compliant database. With the included VBA language, it's possible to build an entire database frontend using Excel. This is already true with Essbase, a leading OLAP database.
SQL Server is Microsoft's entry to the database server market. SQL Server is very easy to manage and comes with a built in OLAP engine. It has good support for web enabled applications and other Microsft products. SQL Server only runs on the Windows
MySQL is the cross-platform open source database server software used extensively in web development and implementaion. It lacks many advanced features that are taken for granted in the enterprise systems, but these shortcomings are offset by ease of
Oracle is probably the most popular enterprise database server at the moment. This is the server that powers eBay on the web and countless datawarehouses and VLDBs around the world. Oracle is suited for all applications from OLTP to Data Warehousing.
A world standard for high performance reporting, Crystal Reports is an intuitive reporting toolkit that helps you rapidly create flexible, feature-rich reports and tightly integrate them into web and windows applications.
There are many other database systems out there such as mSQL, Progress and Ingres. There are also many OLAP systems which are becoming more popular as the hardware required to run them gets cheaper. One of the more popular OLAP systems is Essbase.